Produced in the late 1930s, Spartan was Mergenthaler Linotype and ATF’s knockoff of the extremely popular Futura (Bauer). If you see Futura in a magazine or newspaper published in mid-century America, there’s a good chance it’s actually Spartan (or the other followers: Twentieth Century, Tempo, or Vogue).
Spartan offered some things Futura did not: such as a double-story alternate ‘a’ and unique “Classified” cuts (released later) for very small type. It also differs from Futura in that its ‘1’ has a flat (rather than angled) terminal in all weights. Also, the ATF version had mirrored “signpainters” quotes (a form more common in the US).