Century Roman was designed in 1894 by Linn Boyd Benton for Theodore L. De Vinne and Century magazine. In 1900, ATF issued Century Expanded, a collaboration between Benton and his son, Morris Fuller Benton, which replaced Century Roman. [McGrew]
Monotype’s digital version is derived from smaller metal sizes than the versions from Adobe/Linotype, Bitstream, Elsner+Flake, and URW. Font Bureau’s Benton Modern is a more in-depth reinterpretation which incorporates optical sizes.
Century Oldstyle is also named for the magazine and is a very different typeface. (See comparison.)